), Latin : Centaurus (the Centaur) ), THESEUS The Athenian hero was set amongst the stars in the pose of a kneeling man, the constellation Ennosagin. Attic red-figure kylix by Epictetus showing Heracles slaying Busiris, c. 520, Hades and Persephone in the underworld, interior of a red-figure cup, Greek, from Vulci, c. 430. Akkadian : Shidallu (the True Shepherd of Anu) (Hyginus 2.23. (Hyginus 2.19. In memory of this deed, Prometheus, the arrow and the eagle were placed side by side amongst the stars as the constellations Engonasin, Aquila (or Lyra the vulture) and Sagitta. As a memorial Zeus commemorated the deed amongst the stars of heaven. Sumerian : SHUDUN (the Yoke), ARCAS An early king of Arkadia. (Hyginus 2.36. Greek : Kêtos (the Sea Monster or Whale), ETHIOPIAN CETUS A sea monster which was sent by Poseidon to ravage the land of Ethiopia to punish Queen Cassiopea for her prideful boasts comparing her daughter Andromeda to the Nereids. Many myths are treated as trivial and lighthearted, but this judgment rests on the suppressed premise that any divine behaviour that seems inappropriate for a major religion must have seemed absurd and fictitious to the Greeks. Part of the heavenly dome always lay beneath the horizon. The pair were placed amongst the stars as the constellations Scorpio and Orion. ), DOG OF ORION The dog of the giant hunter Orion who stands above it in the heavens. ), Latin : Virgo (the Virgin) Your adventure begins at the Museum of Olympus where a feud has erupted between Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades. The milk which flowed forth formed the Milky Way. Thus, whereas Heracles, a man of Tiryns, may originally have been a historical character, the myth of his demise on Oeta and subsequent elevation to full divinity is closely linked with a cult. Orion was also set in heaven, but doomed to continue a futile chase for all eternity. Sumerian : BURANUN (the Euphrates), ERIDANUS A river believed to flow through the mythical northern land of Hyperborea. ), PROMETHEUS As punishment for his defiance of Zeus, the Titan Prometheus was chained to Mount Caucasus where an eagle set to feed on his ever-regenerating liver. The fast-breeding animals quickly got out of control and devoured everything on the island, forcing the inhabitants to abandon their homes. ), DEMETER The goddess of agriculture was given a memorial amongst the stars in the form of the constellation Virgo, which some say holds a sheaf of wheat in its hand. (Hyginus 2.26. The eagle and boy were subsequently placed amongst the stars as the constellations Aquila and Aquarius. In memory of the event a pair of fish were set amongst the stars as the constellation Pisces. She and her sister Helice were placed amongst the stars as the constellation Ursa Minor and Major, as a reward for their service. (Hyginus 2.35. ), OTHER DOGS The dogs of Icarius and Orion were sometimes identified with Canis Minor instead of the usual Canis Major. (Hyginus 2.13 on Eratosthenes. Greek : Oinoi (the Asses), CARCINUS A crab of the Lernaean swamp which assisted the Hydra in her battle with Heracles. (Hyginus 2.6. But, for the Greeks, in even the earliest sources there is no indication that Zeus or Poseidon were once bulls or horses or that Hera was ever “ox-eyed” other than metaphorically or that “gray-eyed” Athena was ever “owl-faced.”. In the list below, information is given under the Greek name; the name in parentheses is the Roman equivalent. (Hyginus 2.15. Akkadian : Zibanitu After he was slain by the Bacchantes, Apollo and the Muses placed his lyre amongst the stars. After an inordinately prolonged childhood, the men of the Silver Age began to act presumptuously and neglected the gods. After her death it was set amongst the stars as the constellation Corona. (Hyginus 2.3. (Hyginus 2.30 on Diognetus Erythraeus. (Hyginus 2.12, Aratus 248. The gods’ jealousy of mortals’ musical talents appears in the beating and flaying of the aulos-playing satyr, Marsyas, by Athena and Apollo, as well as in the attaching of ass’s ears to King Midas for failing to appreciate the superiority of Apollo’s music to that of the god Pan. Their match was memorialised amongst the stars as the constellation Gemini. When he died she set him amongst the stars to continue for eternity the struggle with the serpent. Heracles slew it as one of his twelve labours, along with its ally the crab. (Hyginus 2.6. (Hyginus 2.19. ), EAGLE OF ZEUS 1 The eagle which Zeus sent to snatch the handsome Trojan youth Ganymedes up to heaven. In some accounts, she gave up her seat as one of the Twelve Olympians in favor of Dionysus, and she plays little role in Greek myths. Greek and Roman mythology borrowed heavily from each other. ), PHORBAS A hero of the island of Rhodes. ), MELANIPPE A daughter of the centaur Chiron. Greek : Aix Olenios (the Goat on the Left), ERICHTHONIUS An early King of Athens who invented the four-horse chariot. Akkadian : Purattu (the Euphrates) Myths of origin represent an attempt to render the universe comprehensible in human terms. ), MEGISTO An Arcadian princess, daughter of King Ceteus. It was sent by the cloud nymph Nephele to rescue her children, Phrixus and Helle, who were about to be sacrificed to the gods. ), Latin : Aquarius (Water Bearer) (Hyginus 2.4. Akkadian : Habasiranu (Hyginus 2.25. ), SERPENT OF APOLLO A water-serpent was placed amongst the stars by the god Apollo in the form of the constellation Hydra, to guard the heavenly bowl Crater, preventing the crow Corvus from drinking. The gods as a memorial, set the whole family amongst the stars as constellations. ), Latin : Pisces (the Fishes) When the island was plagued by serpents, Phorbas destroyed them all, and as a reward for this service was placed amongst the stars by the god Apollon. (Hyginus 2.24. (Hyginus 2.38. Heracles slew them, but Pholus examining one of the poisonous arrows let it fall on his foot and died. Greek : Largos (the Hare), HARE OF ORION A hare which was set amongst the stars before the hunter Orion and his dog (Canis) to play out an eternal chase. (Aratus 137. (Hyginus 2.23. When he was about to kill his mother Callisto who had been transformed into a bear, Zeus raised the pair to heavens as the constellations Arctophylax (the Bear-Watcher) andUrsa (the Bear). ), MAERA The dog of Icarius, a devotee of the god Dionysus. When Asclepius dared to extend his craft by bringing back men from the dead, Zeus struck him dead with a thunderbolt. Greek mythology linked the red anemone, sometimes called the windflower, to the death of Adonis. He leads it in the chase of the hare (Lepus) or the fox (Canis Minor). Helios in his chariot, relief sculpture excavated at Troy in 1872; in the National Museums in Berlin. Also popular were myths of fairylands, such as the Garden of the Hesperides (in the far west) or the land of the Hyperboreans (in the far north), or encounters with unusual creatures, such as the Centaurs, or distinctive societies, such as the Amazons. Episodes in the Trojan cycle, such as the departure of the Greek fleet from Aulis or Theseus’s Cretan expedition and death on Scyros, may belong to traditions dating from the Minoan-Mycenaean world. ), Latin : Delphinus (the Dolphin) ), Latin : Taurus (the Bull) An important Greek example is the Cretan Zeus, mentioned above. Because of her mother’s grief, Zeus permitted Persephone to spend four months of the year in the house of Hades and eight in the light of day. When she was chained to the rocks, the hero Perseus spied her, slew the beast, and carried her off as his wife. ), A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | X | Z, Theoi Project © Copyright 2000 - 2017 Aaron J. Atsma, Netherlands & New Zealand. Perseus slew the beast and saved the girl. The Greek myths are allegorical, and I bet the smart ancients knew better than to take them literally. Greek : Protrugêtêr (the Vintager), ASTRAEA The maiden goddess of justice, who departed from the earth at the start of the Brazen Age of Man. Others say he became Saggitarius. Gods sometimes assumed the form of beasts in order to deceive goddesses or women. Consequently, Zeus hid them in the Earth, where they became spirits among the dead. As a reward for his zeal he was placed amongst the stars as the constellation Saggitarius. (Hyginus 2.16 & 2.29. Not often identifiable in Greek art, she appeared as a modestly veiled woman. The final age, the antithesis of the Golden Age, was the Iron Age, during which the poet himself had the misfortune to live. ), Latin : Scorpio (the Scorpion) Sumerian : SHAH (the Pig or Boar), DOLPHIN OF POSEIDON When Poseidon was wooing the goddess Amphitrite, she fled from his advances and hid herself away. The serpent prevented the crow from drinking at the bowl leaving it eternally parched in the heavens. He hated his children and didn’t want to allow them to see the light of day. (Hyginus 2.32. (Hyginus 2.33. The hero Cephalus set the magical dog Laelaps to hunt it down. * The form and arrangment of the heavenly constellations was adopted by the Greeks from the sea-trading Phoenicians of the East, who in turn had received them from the Assyrians, and they from their forefathers the ancient Sumerians. (Hyginus 2.1 & 2.6 on Araethus of Tegea. All the best-known Greek hero myths, such as the labours of Heracles and the adventures of Perseus, Cadmus, Pelops, or Oedipus, depend more for their interest on folktales than on legend. The sisters were placed amongst the stars by the god Zeus, after the lustful giant Orion had pursued them across the earth for seven years. (Hyginus 2.21 on Pherecydes. Hesiod may have known this version; he wishes to have been born either earlier or later. (Hyginus 2.17. ), Latin : Crater (the Drinking Cup) She received from the gods as a wedding gift upon her marriage to the god Dionysus. Hera was still furious and forbade Callisto's stars ever set into the river Oceanus. ), MEROPES A King of Cos whose wife was killed by Artemis for spurning her worship. (Hyginus 2.1 & 2.4 from Hesiod & Amphis & others. The constellations, as described in Greek mythology, were mostly god-favoured heroes and beasts who received a place amongst the stars as a memorial of their deeds. Greek : Hydrokhoos (Water-Bearer) As a reward for this service to mankind he was placed amongst the stars as the constellation Bootes. Dionysus afterwards placed the pair amongst the stars as the constellations Virgo and Bootes. ), Latin : Eridanus Greek : Arktos Megale (the Great Bear) or Amaza (the Wagon) or Helikê Sumerian : UGA-MUSHEN (the Raven), CORONIS A Thessalian girl loved by the god Apollo. Such etiological myths proliferated during the Hellenistic era, though in the earlier periods genuine examples are harder to detect. The pair were famed horsemen who were transferred to the heavens at death to form the constellation Gemini. As a reward for this service Poseidon set him amongst the stars as a constellation. ), EAGLE OF ZEUS 3 When Hermes was wooing the goddess Aphrodite she spurned his advances. Some say Centaurus is depicted pouring a libation at the altar, Ara. The Sun (Helios) traversed the heavens like a charioteer and sailed around the Earth in a golden bowl at night. Greek : Toxeutês (the Archer) Zeus, pitying his son, sent an eagle which snatched away her sandal and delivered it the god, which he used to barter for her favours. Perhaps the best-known myth of this type is the one that tells how Hades (Latin Pluto), the god of the underworld, carried Persephone off to be his consort, causing her mother, Demeter, the goddess of grain, to allow the earth to grow barren out of her grief. ), ARROW OF HERACLES The arrow with which Heracles slew the eagle set to torment the Titan Prometheus. In the story of his death, Orion was either killed by Artemis or by a scorpion sent by Gaea to punish him for boasting that he would slay all the creatures of the earth. ), PLEIADES Seven nymphs whose stars form the "tail of the Bull" Taurus. The goddess woke from her sleep, because of the roughness of the child, and pushed him away in disgust. There Io was restored to human form and gave birth to her son Epaphos. ), Latin : Cetus (the Sea Monster or Whale) ), HARE OF LEROS The island of Leros was once free of hares, until a young man brought a pregnant female into the country as a pet. Because of the unbearable pain of the wound, he surrendered his immortality and was placed amongst the stars as the constellation Centaurus. Akkadian : Enzu (the She-Goat) Sumerian : AGA (the Crown of Anu), CROWN OF ARIADNE The crown of the Cretan princess Ariadne. Their dog Maera was set nearby as Canis Major. Akkadian : Erû (the Eagle) Charon, the grisly ferryman of the dead, was also a popular figure of folktale. al. According to Tzetzes, he rejected all romantic advances, eventually falling in love with his own reflection in a pool of water.He later died, and in his place sprouted a flower bearing his name. Sumerian : PA.BIL.SAG. Similarly, the presence of the cuckoo on Hera’s sceptre at Hermione or the invention of the panpipe were explained by fables. Greek : Hêniokhos (the Charioteer) (Hyginus 2.18 on Euripides. He was instructed by the god in the art of winemaking, but was murdered by peasants who mistook the draught for poison. In time, Heracles’ popularity was responsible for connecting his story with the Argonauts, an earlier attack on Troy, and with Theban myth. (Hyginus 2.22. (Hyginus 2.22. His oxen and plough were set alongside him as the Wain, i.e., the constellations Ursa Major and Minor. ), LYRE OF THAMYRIS A bard who was blinded by the Muses. He then placed Aex among the stars as Capra. ), DRAGON OF ATHENA A gigantic serpent which was cast at the goddess Athena during the giant war. However, all Latin names are listed with cross-references to the Greek ones. They were regarded as semi-divine spirits--living, conscious entities which strode across the heavens. In the Works and Days, Hesiod makes use of a scheme of Four Ages (or Races): Golden, Silver, Bronze, and Iron. Her symbols are the hearth and kettle. (Hyginus 2.20 on Leon. The god drove them to terror with his illusions and, when they leapt from the ship, he transformed them into dolphins. Greek : Hippos (the Horse) or Pegasos Greek mythology books (retellings, translations, and commentary) continue to be some of my favorite reads. Greek : Pleiades (the Ladies of Plenty) The last of these set it to hunt down the Teumessian fox, which was destined never to be caught. (Hyginus 2.8. (This subjection of myth to history is not universal in Greece, but it is found in writers such as Hesiod, Xenophanes, Pindar, Aeschylus, and Plato.) Orion was also described by Homer both striding across the heavens and hunting wild beasts in the underworld. Why the Golden Age came to an end Hesiod failed to explain, but it was succeeded by the Silver Age. On the other hand, events described in the Iliad probably owe far more to Homer’s creative ability than to genuine tradition. ), Latin : Aries (the Ram) As a reward for its service the god placed the goat and its two kids amongst the stars about the constellation Auriga: Capra the goat sitting on his left shoulder, and the Kids in his left hand. Akkadian : Sisû (the Horse) ), HERACLES IN LIGURIA The great hero was said to have been placed amongst the stars in the shape of kneeling man, as a memorial of his desperate battle with the Ligurians, whom he encountered on his return trip to Greece with the cattle of Geryon. (Hyginus 2.6 on Euripides. Of these heroes the more-favoured (who were related to the gods) reverted to a kind of restored Golden Age existence under the rule of Cronus (forced into honourable exile by his son Zeus) in the Isles of the Blessed. ), ALTAR OF PHOLUS The kindly centaur Pholus was set amongst the stars by Zeus for his skill in augury. ), Latin : Cancer (the Crab) Greek : The Greek name of the constellation. All three were then placed amongst the stars as Procyon (Canis Minor), Bootes and Virgo. He thereby destroys the symmetry of the myth, in the interests of history: what is now known as the Minoan-Mycenaean period was generally believed in antiquity to have been a good time to live. ), IO THE HEIFER The Argive princess Io was loved by Zeus, who transformed her into a cow to hide her from the jealous gaze of his wife Hera. Sumerian : SUHUR.MÁSH (the Goat-Fish), AEGIPAN 1 A goatish sea god who came to the assistance of Zeus in the War of the Titans, and filled the enemy with panic. ), Latin : Auriga (the Charioteer) The Greeks imagined the heavens as a great, solid dome, which, some say, was forged of bronze, and upon which the heavenly constellations were fixed. Thus, the Homeric Hymns to Demeter, a goddess of agriculture, and to the Delian and Pythian Apollo describe how these deities came to be associated with sites at Eleusis, Delos, and Delphi, respectively. Sumerian : LÚ.HUN.GÁ (the Hired Man), CHRYSOMALLUS A flying, golden-fleeced ram. Various myths describe the birth and death of the semi-immortal constellations: such as the Gemini twins, or Dioskouroi, who were said to divide their time equally between Heaven and Haides. Summerian : MUSH (the Snake), LERNAEAN HYDRA A monstrous nine-headed serpent which haunted the springs of Lerna. (Hyginus 2.40 on Istrus. Because of its far northern location, most of the stars are seen to rise in the east and set in the west. As a memorial the hero was placed amongst the stars along with the serpent which coiled around his staff. ), Latin : Canis (the Dog) (Hyginus 2.14. ), ASSES OF DIONYSUS 2 The two asses of Cancer were also said to have been placed there as a reward for their service in the Giant War. According to Hesiod, four primary divine beings first came into existence: the Gap (Chaos), Earth (Gaea), the Abyss (Tartarus), and Love (Eros). Zeus coupled with her and she bore the god Aegipan. Akkadian & Sumerian : The old Eastern name for the constellation, predating the Greek. When his master was murdered, and his mistress committed suicide, the dog threw himself down a well. Latin : Sirios Sumerian : UR.GU.LA (the Lion), NEMEAN LION A lion whose hide was impervious to weapons which terrorized the countryside of Nemea. (Hyginus 2.4 & 2.25. (Hyginus 2.28 on Eratosthenes. To commemorate the event he placed the eagle and altar amongst the stars as the constellations Aquila and Ara. The constellations revolve round a central point in the northern sky known as the pole star, or heavenly axis (Greek polos). Dionysus then placed him, his daughter Erigone and their dog Maira, amongst the stars as the constellations Bootes, Virgo and Canis Major. ), Latin : Ara (the Altar) ), CROWN OF DIONYSUS The crown of the god of wine. Mercury is commonly identified with the Greek god Hermes. As a reward for her service, she was placed amongst the stars as the constellation Ursa Major, along with her sister Cynosura as Ursa Minor. Sumerian : KU (the Fish) & SIM.MAH (the Swallow), FISHES OF APHRODITE When the monster Typhon attacked Olympus, the gods fled in a body to the south. Greek : Ikhthyes (the Fishes) In this way he was depicted lifting the stone at Troezen under which Aegeus had laid the sword as proof of his paternity. (Hyginus 2.8. Sumerian : EN.TE.NA.BAR.HUM, CHIRON The wisest of the Centaurs, a son of the Titan Cronus. ), NILE The great river of Egypt was placed amongst the stars as the constellations Eridanus and Delta. She was later placed amongst the stars as the constellation Ursa Major, along with her son Arcas, who became Bootes. But even that was not the worst, for he believed that a time would come when infants would be born old and there would be no recourse left against the universal moral decline. Hidden deep within the bowels of the earth and ruled by the god Hades and his wife Persephone, the Underworld was the kingdom of the dead in Greek mythology, the sunless place where the souls of those who died went after death. (1) the Nemean Lion, constellation Leo; (2) the Hydra and Crab, constellations Hydra and Cancer; (3) the Stymphalian Birds, constellations Lyra and Cygnus; (4) the Cretan Bull, constellation Taurus; (5) the Hesperian Dragon, constellation Serpens; (6) Herakles wrestling Apollon, constellation Gemini; (7) Prometheus and the Caucasian Eagle, constellations Hercules and Aquilla; (8) the centaur Cheiron or Pholus, constellation Saggitarius or Centaurus; et. ), Latin : Sagittarius (the Archer) (Hyginus 2.40. In less benign climates, she was said to spend six months of the year in each. “Race” is the more accurate translation, but “Golden Age” has become so established in English that both terms should be mentioned. (Hyginus 2.4 on Hermippus & Petellides. Greek : Engonasin (the Kneeler) (Hyginus 2.43. ), HELICE A nymph who nursed the infant god Zeus on Mount Ida in Crete. (Hyginus 2.43. Her mother offended the gods by boasting that the girl was more beautiful than the Nereids. The gods then transformed her into a horse, and after her child was born set her amongst the stars as a constellation. (Hyginus 2.6 on Hergesianax. ), Latin : Corvus (the Crow) (Hyginus 2.33. Sumerian : GU.LA (the Great), GANYMEDES A handsome Trojan prince. Some scholars hold that Persephone’s time belowground represents the summer months, when Greek fields are parched and bare, but the Hymn to Demeter, the earliest source for the myth, states explicitly that Persephone returns when the spring flowers are flourishing (line 401). (Hyginus 2.10 on Euripides & Sophocles. (Hyginus 2.18 on Aratus, Aratus 205. Greek : Êridanos or Potamos (the River) Greek : Prokyôn (the Fore Dog) Some say Orpheus was himself represented nearby in the form of the constellation "Hercules," the Kneeling Man. When her father was killed by peasants who mistook thought the wine was poison, she committed suicide by hanging herself from a tree. Greek : Kentauros (the Centaur) ), Latin : Saggita (the Arrow) She was also called Kore, which means "maiden" and grew up to be a lovely girl attracting the attention of many gods. ), EAGLE OF PROMETHEUS An eagle which was set by Zeus feed on the liver of the chained Titan Prometheus. (the Scales) Sumerian : GÍR.TAB (the Scorpion), SCORPION OF ORION A scorpion sent forth by the earth-goddess Gaea to kill Orion when the giant boasted that he would slay all the animals of the earth. Atlas bringing Heracles the apples of the Hesperides in the presence of Athena, marble metope from the east end of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, c. 460. (Hyginus 2.14. (Hyginus 2.4 & 2.35. (Hyginus 2.25. ), Latin : Ophiuchus (Hyginus 2.16 on Aglaosthenes. Latin : the Roman name of the constellation (usually the same as the one used in English today) The presence of evil was explained by Pandora’s rash action in opening the fatal jar. ), Latin : Argo The images on this page are from a Renaissance-era ceiling fresco (circa 1573) decorating the Villa Farnese in Caprarola, Italy. After the beast was slain by Heracles, Hera placed it amongst the stars as Draco. He was placed amongst the stars as a man bent down on one knee in supplication along with his lyre. Those of the Golden Age never grew old, were free from toil, and passed their time in jollity and feasting. Poseidon took the shape of a stallion to beget the wonder horses Arion and Pegasus. Both Asclepius and the arrow were placed amongst the stars, as Ophiochus and Sagitta respectively. The Dioscuri came to the rescue of sailors in distress. She was rescued by Perseus, who slew the beast. ), BOOTES The inventor of the wagon or plough, a son of the goddess Demeter. ), PHOENICE A Phoenician girl or bear who was set amongst the stars as the constellation Ursa Minor. (Hyginus 2.37. Poseidon (god of the sea) was unusually atavistic in that his union with Earth, and his equine adventures appear to hark back to his pre-marine status as a horse or earthquake god. In Greek mythology, Narcissus (/ n ɑːr ˈ s ɪ s ə s /; Ancient Greek: Νάρκισσος Nárkissos) was a hunter from Thespiae in Boeotia who was known for his beauty. Greek : Karkinos (the Crab) Similarly, myths about Athena, the patroness of Athens, tend to emphasize the goddess’s love of war and her affection for heroes and the city of Athens, and those concerning Hermes (the messenger of the gods), Aphrodite (goddess of love), or Dionysus describe Hermes’ proclivities as a god of thieves, Aphrodite’s lovemaking, and Dionysus’s association with wine, frenzy, miracles, and even ritual death. But because the pair had conflicting fates - one was destined never to be caught, and the other never to surrender the chase--Zeus transferred the pair to the heavens to play out their contest unresolved for all eternity. The god then placed Coronis (literally, "the Crow") amongst the stars as the constellation Corvus. Stephen Fry, for those of you who know him, is an irrepressibly talented raconteur, comedian, writer, TV host (QI), actor and atheist. The eagle and arrow were placed side by side in the heavens as the constellations Aquila and Sagitta. Her father and was placed beside her in the form of the Kneeler ("Hercules") apparently lamenting her fate. Akkadian : Zappu (the Bristle) ), THAMYRIS A bard who was blinded by the Muses as punishment for daring to challenge them to a musical contest. The eagle was rewarded with a place amonst the stars. Heracles, "glory of the air," had his labours represented amongst the stars of heaven. As the months progress it is seen to rise earlier and earlier in the night, and gradually assumes a higher position in the heavens prior to dawn, until one evening, it has reached the western horizon, before dissappearing completely from view (which is known as the constellation's astronomical setting). Sumerian : AL.LUL (the Crab), Latin : Aselli (the Asses) It was first bestowed on Europa by Zeus, who passed it to her son Minos, and from him to Procris and Cephalus. Other types of myth exemplified the belief that the gods sometimes appeared on Earth disguised as men and women and rewarded any help or hospitality offered them. They were a pair of donkeys who helped Dionysus cross a swamp when he was on his way to Dodona in search of a curse for the madness inflicted upon him by Hera. Even heroes like Achilles, Hector, or Diomedes are largely fictional, though doubtlessly based on legendary prototypes. This angered Gaea, and she plotted with her sons against Uranus.She made a harpe, a great adamant sickle, and tried to incite her children to attack Uranus. Sumerian : GÀM (the Crook), Latin : Capra (the Goat) Akkadian : Alluttu (the Crab) Greek mythology - Greek mythology - Types of myths in Greek culture: Myths of origin represent an attempt to render the universe comprehensible in human terms. It was set to flow amongst the northern stars. (Hyginus 2.6. He was seized and carried off to heaven by an eagle sent down by Zeus, to become the cup-bearer of the gods. ), WAIN OF BOOTES The ox-drawn wagon or plough of the farmer Bootes was set amongst the stars in the form of the constellation Ursa Major. Not all of the constellations are visible in the night sky throughout the year. Even the gentle Muses (goddesses of the arts and sciences) blinded their human rivals, such as the bard Thamyris. ), AEX OF PAN The goatish wife of the god Pan. CROTUS A horse-legged, satyr hunter who was a companion of the Muses on Mount Helicon. In memorial of the event Athena placed Perseus, Andromeda, Cepheus and Cassiopea (the girl's parents) and Cetus (the Sea Monster) amongst the stars. Water nymphs (Naiads) were reputed to drown those with whom they fell in love, such as Hylas, a companion of Heracles. The Castration of Uranus. The god Pan transformed himself into a goat-fish and hid dived into a river. ), ASS OF SILENUS The donkey mount of the old rustic god Silenus. Upon reaching Colchis the ram shed its golden fleece for Phrixus who hung it in a sacred grove, and flew up to the heavens to take a place amongst the stars as the dimly shining constellation Aries.